38th International Symposium on Growth Hormone and Growth by H. P. F. Koppeschaar, Torsten Tuvemo, Peter Trainer, Philip

By H. P. F. Koppeschaar, Torsten Tuvemo, Peter Trainer, Philip Zeitler

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Read or Download 38th International Symposium on Growth Hormone and Growth Factors in Endocrinology and Metabolism: Granada, Spain, April 7-8, 2006 (Hormone Research) PDF

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Extra info for 38th International Symposium on Growth Hormone and Growth Factors in Endocrinology and Metabolism: Granada, Spain, April 7-8, 2006 (Hormone Research)

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8 Zwaka TP, Thomson JA: A germ cell origin of embryonic stem cells? Development 2005; 132:227–233. 9 Sato N, Meijer L, Skaltsounis L, Greengard P, Brivanlou AH: Maintenance of pluripotency in human and mouse embryonic stem cells through activation of Wnt signaling by a pharmacological GSK-3-specific inhibitor. Nat Med 2004;10:55–63. 10 Pyle AD, Lock LF, Donovan PJ: Neurotrophins mediate human embryonic stem cell survival. Nat Biotechnol 2006;24:344–350. 11 Richards M, Fong CY, Chan WK, Wong PC, Bongso A: Human feeders support prolonged undifferentiated growth of human inner cell masses and embryonic stem cells.

18] to produce insulin- and C-peptide-expressing cells, but not cells that coexpress insulin and C-peptide. Retinoic acid induces the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Pdx1+, which is a critical regulator for formation of the developing pancreas in endoderm cells when added to difHorm Res 2007;67(suppl 1):28–31 29 ferentiating mouse ESCs on day 4 of differentiation as EBs [19]. The genes expressed by these cells include the early pancreatic endoderm markers Ptf1a, Foxa2, Hnf1-␤ and Hnf6.

14], who reported, in a normal population, a predictive value of low serum IGF-I levels for the risk of development of glucose intolerance, independent of the variation in insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, low IGF-I levels have been associated with a reduction in the insulin disposition index [15]. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that IGF-I signaling through its receptor on the pancreatic ␤-cells is important in maintaining ␤-cell mass and insulin secretion [16, 17]. If we hypothesise that the risk of developing T2DM in adult GHD is associated with low serum levels of IGF-I, then GH replacement should improve glucose metabolism in these patients.

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