A History of Experimental Virology by Alfred Grafe

By Alfred Grafe

By means of their powers of cause scientists can be in a position to extract from nature the solutions to their questions. From: Critique of natural cause, 1781 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German thinker historical past is a composite of news. The background of the organic disciplines has been written through all those that opened the gates of recent wisdom via producing rules and the experiments to aid them. prior authors have tried numerous ways to the historical past of virology, as is mirrored within the various books and book-series issuing from the publishing homes. This quantity is an try out at a compre­ hensive but compact survey of virology, which has intended penetrating the inflexible limits of the separate disciplines of biology within which virologists have labored. scripting this heritage of experimental virology used to be relatively a look for the origins and for very important signposts to painting the large scope of the data attained to date. This used to be performed in com­ plete expertise of the truth that each presentation relies seriously upon the point of view of the observer, and of necessity communi­ cates just a a part of the full. the current clinical tale hopes to recount crucial wisdom accomplished in this prior century - the 1st century of the fascinating advancements in virology.

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The a~sumption of the American research committee, namely that mosquitoes were the carriers of yellow fever, had not been proven. The conclusions of the dramatic investigation, which was overshadowed by Lazear's death from the disease, were presented and published by Reed, Carroll and Agramonte between 1900 and 1902. Recalling a directive which W. Welch, a bacteriologist working in Baltimore who had participated in the wound-infection discussions in Breslau in 1877, had given, the commission was familiar with the methods employed by Laffler and Frosch in connection with FMD.

In short, Beijerinck's idea met with rejection and his model of multiplication was discussed no further. The literature often cites someone as the "founder" of virology. Since it is customary - for non-scientific reasons - to associate the word "founding" with one particular person, in the case of virology such a contention can only be defended superficially. When Beijerinck is mentioned, the scales tip in his favour because his ideas at the close of the 19th century sound to us so modern. Speaking against him is the fact that he made no attempt, theoretical or experimental, to prove or even to defend his hypothesis of a Contagium vivum fluidum and its intracellular reproduction.

All of these methods deserve consideration when we pose the question: To what extent had the scientific claims of the time been proved? This applies most emphatically to the early stages of experimental virology. Here the literature lauds many a scientist as the "father" or the "founder", while many a claim remains unverified. 2 A New Type of Pathogenic Agent? During the final two decades of the 19th century, many fungal and bacterial pathogens were identified as causing infectious diseases in plants and animals.

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