Adaptive Brain by Stephen Grossberg

By Stephen Grossberg

Those books assemble fresh neural versions of imaginative and prescient, speech and language reputation and bear in mind, cognitive self-organization, conditioning, reinforcement, motivation, awareness, circadian rhythms, motor regulate, and likely psychological problems. as well as unifying and predicting interdisciplinary information from psychology, psychophysiology, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, and anatomy, the paintings indicates new real-time circuit designs for laptop imaginative and prescient and speech units, self-organizing development attractiveness machines, parallel processors, and adaptive robots.

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First, the CS itself must be insufficient to elicit a sampling signal from Second, the UCS must let ui2) know when it will arrive at F ( ’ ) by sending a signal to ui2). Third, must be prevented from eliciting a sampling signal unless large CS and UCS In other words, u;’) should not fire at all unless signals converge simultaneously at it represents the CS and should not fire until the correct time before the UCS arrives at F(’). In particular, if the CS input arrives so long before the UCS that its signal to decays before the UCS signal reaches $), then vi’) cannot fire.

These data suggest that decrements in weight may cause proportional increments in the size of the drive input to the hunger drive representation. Such a drive input increment can energize both learning and performance in the manner suggested above. Due t o the interaction between performance and learning processes, the energizing effects of a drive input are not sufficient to explain network dynamics. Associative factors modulate a drive’s efficacy, since the cues of an unfamiliar situation must become conditioned reinforcers and conditioned habit strength sources before they can efficiently cont,rol a learned behavior.

Is sexual desire always aversive? What is aversive about anticipating a marvelous dinner and eating it with gusto? It would be aversive, to be sure, if the dinner were cancelled at the last minute. Is this aversive reaction due directly to hunger, or is it due to the frustration that is triggered when we learn that the expected feast has been called off? If we agree that hunger or sexual desire can be positive drives, not negative drives like fear, then why should reducing them be reinforcing? The commonsense basis for believing in drive reduction hereby collapses.

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