By Susanne Klaus
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Extra resources for Adipose Tissues , Edition: 1st
Carbacyclin can substitute for T3 in the adipocyte differentiation of Ob1771 cells in serum-free conditions115 and 2. 2. Cell surface and nuclear receptor equipment of adipose precursor cells and adipocytes Receptorsb Adipoblastsa Preadipocytesa Adipocytesa Ref. D. D. D. D. D. D. + (+) 37,38 RAR! and RAR# + ++ +++ 68 RXR! and RXR∀ + ++ +++ 68 TR + + ++ 114,115 PPAR∃ - + ++ 67 PPAR# - (+) ++ 54 AhR + (+) - 158-161 Arnt + (+) - 158,159 continued on next page The ability of retinoic acid (RA) and synthetic retinoids to promote or inhibit differentiation processes has been recognized for several years.
PPAR∃ appears to initiate the effects of fatty acids on post-confluent mitoses, independently of the other adipogenic factors. Ectopic expression of PPAR∃ renders confluent 3T3-C2 fibroblasts capable to respond to long-chain fatty acids in a dose-dependent manner by one to two rounds of mitoses. A mutated dominant-negative form of PPAR∃, which does not exhibit any transcriptional activity, appears unable to initiate in 3T3-C2 stable transfectants a fatty acid-induced proliferation (P. Grimaldi et al, personal communication).
Endocrinology 1998; 139(11):4747-4750. 16. Fawcett DW. A Textbook of Histology. 12th ed. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1994. 17. Ghadially FN. Ultrastructural Pathology of the Cell and Matrix. 4th ed. Boston: ButterworthHeinemann, 1997. 18. Napolitano L. The differentiation of white adipose cells. J Cell Biol 1963; 663-679. 26 Adipose Tissues 19. Slavin BG. Fine structural studies on white adipocyte differentiation. Anat Rec 1979; 195(1):63-72. 20. Barbatelli G, Morroni M, Vinesi P et al. S-100 protein in rat brown adipose tissue under different functional conditions: a morphological, immunocytochemical, and immunochemical study.