By Jan van Kuppevelt, Laila Dybkjær, Niels Ole Bernsen
The major subject of this quantity is traditional multimodal interplay. The ebook is exclusive in that it brings jointly a superb many contributions relating to features of traditional and multimodal interplay written by way of a number of the very important actors within the box. issues addressed comprise speaking heads, conversational brokers, tutoring structures, multimodal verbal exchange, laptop studying, architectures for multimodal discussion structures, structures assessment, and information annotation.
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Extra info for Advances in Natural Multimodal Dialogue Systems (Text, Speech and Language Technology)
Face-to-face interactions are also less formal and more spontaneous than conversations on the phone. One study found that face-to-face discussions were more protracted and wide-ranging while subjects communicating via audio-only kept much more to the speciﬁc issues on the agenda (the study also found that when the topics were more wide-ranging, changes in attitude among the participants was more likely to occur). Although several studies found increases in favourable impressions of interactants in face-to-face conversation relative to audio-only, these effects have not been consistently validated.
Resnick and Lammers showed that in order to change user behaviour via corrective error messages, the messages should have different degrees of “humanness” depending on whether the user has high or low self-esteem (“computer-ese” messages should be used with low self-esteem users, while “human-like” messages should be used with highesteem users) [Resnick and Lammers, 1985]. Rickenberg and Reeves showed that different types of animated agents affected the anxiety level of users differentially as a function of whether users tended towards internal or external locus of control [Rickenberg and Reeves, 2000].
For example, Reeves and Nass have shown that users like agents that match their own personality (on the introversion/ extraversion dimension) more than those which do not, regardless of whether the personality is portrayed through text or speech [Nass and Gong, 2000; Reeves and Nass, 1996]. Resnick and Lammers showed that in order to change user behaviour via corrective error messages, the messages should have different degrees of “humanness” depending on whether the user has high or low self-esteem (“computer-ese” messages should be used with low self-esteem users, while “human-like” messages should be used with highesteem users) [Resnick and Lammers, 1985].